bacterium is frequently found in estuarine and marine waters of
the United States. and from fish and shellfish dwelling in these
gastroenteritis is the name of the infection caused by this organism.
abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headache, fever, and chills
are associated with infections. Illness is mild or moderate, although
some cases require hospitalization. The duration of the illness
is about 2.5 days. The incubation period is 4-96 hours after the
ingestion of the organism, with a mean of 15 hours. The organism
attaching itself to the small intestine and excreting a toxin causes
the organism from the diarrheic stool makes the diagnosis. Infections
are associated with eating raw, improperly cooked, or cooked, recontaminated
fish and shellfish. An association exists with infection and warmer
months of the year.
MARINE VIBRIOS IMPLICATED IN FOODBORNE DISEASE:
other marine vibrios are associated with human disease. Some may
cause wound or ear infections, and others, gastroenteritis.. The
species implicated in human disease include:
alginolyticus Vibrio furnissii Vibrio
carchariae Vibrio hollisae Vibrio
cincinnatiensis Vibrio metschnikovii Vibrio
damsela Vibrio mimicus Vibrio
vulnificus, is found in estuarine environments and associated with
various marine species such as plankton, shellfish (oysters, clams,
and crabs), and finfish. It is found in all of the coastal waters
of the United States. Environmental factors responsible for controlling
members of V. vulnificus in seafood d and in the environment
include temperature, pH, salinity, and increased dissolved organics.
organism causes wound infections, gastroenteritis, or a syndrome
known as "primary septicemia."
infections result either from contaminating an open wound with sea
water harboring the organism, or by lacerating part of the body
on coral, fish, etc., followed by contamination with the organism.
Eating V. vulnificus by healthy individuals can result
in gastroenteritis. The "primary septicemia" form of the
disease follows consumption of raw seafood containing the organism
by people with chronic disease (such as liver disease diabetes,
cirrhosis, or leukemia, or those who take immunosuppressive drugs)
where the bacterium enters the blood, resulting in sepsis and death(about
50%). These individuals should be strongly advised not to consume
raw or inadequately cooked seafood, as should AIDS patients.
culturing of the organism from wounds, diarrheic stools, or blood
confirms the diagnostic.
bacterium has been isolated from oysters, clams, and crabs.