Beach Safety
Many hazards can happen at the beach, but most of these hazards can be avoided.

Sunburn
Skin cancer is on the rise and is more important than ever, particularly in kids. People should use suntan lotion that is effective against UVA and UVB radiation, and also has high SPF ratings. Hats and lip balms are also essential. Sunscreen is more effective if put on 30

minutes prior to sun exposure (it takes time for sunscreen to chemically bond properly). Clothing also has SPF. Clothing with tight weaves has the best protection, but all clothing loses its sunscreen ability when wet, as the water opens up the stitches.

Sunburn consists of two phases. The first phase is the Thermal damage, which is then followed by the Inflammatory phase as the body produces chemicals that cause pain, redness, and swelling. Sunburn can be relieved with cool compresses, aloe vera, and aspirin. This limits the Inflammatory phase and can limit the total damage from the sunburn.

Drowning
Drowning still occurs at pools, beaches, and in foreign countries. Many drownings can be prevented. Learning to swim at an early age helps. Small children should always be supervised. Parents may assume that lifeguards will look after their children, but this is something they cannot do. Lifeguards and other safety workers should be respected and obeyed. Off-duty medical people should identify themselves in case of an emergency.

Jelly Fish
Jelly Fish actually kill more people than sharks. Serious allergic reactions occur when the cysts of a jellyfish erupt, stinging people, causing venom release. If stung, wash off the remaining tentacles. Vinegar can also be used. It is important to not use fresh water (this causes the poison sacs to explode). Some jellyfish venoms require anti-venom treatment. At present, the best way to deal with jellyfish is to avoid them.

Sharks

Sharks are over-exaggerated as a threat, yet they still remain a risk. Be knowledgeable of where they are and prevent swimming or diving. Certain behaviors such as splashing, being outlined (from below) next to a boat, and open cuts, can attract sharks and make them confuse you with prey. Menstruating women do not attract sharks.
If you see a shark, quietly and slowly leave the water and avoid splashing. If a confrontation is unavoidable, place yourself behind and object (i.e. air cylinder). Blowing air bubbles may be enough to repel a shark. If possible, a punch to the snout will also work but be careful as touching a shark's skin may cause abrasive wounds. Also if you are fishing, be careful as blood speared fish can over-stimulate sharks with a "feeding frenzy"

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