minutes prior to sun exposure
(it takes time for sunscreen to chemically bond properly). Clothing also has
SPF. Clothing with tight weaves has the best protection, but all clothing
loses its sunscreen ability when wet, as the water opens up the stitches.
Sunburn consists of two phases. The first phase is the Thermal damage, which
is then followed by the Inflammatory phase as the body produces chemicals
that cause pain, redness, and swelling. Sunburn can be relieved with cool
compresses, aloe vera, and aspirin. This limits the Inflammatory phase and
can limit the total damage from the sunburn.
Drowning still occurs at pools, beaches, and in foreign countries. Many drownings
can be prevented. Learning to swim at an early age helps. Small children should
always be supervised. Parents may assume that lifeguards will look after their
children, but this is something they cannot do. Lifeguards and other safety
workers should be respected and obeyed. Off-duty medical people should identify
themselves in case of an emergency.
Jelly Fish actually
kill more people than sharks. Serious allergic reactions occur when the cysts
of a jellyfish erupt, stinging people, causing venom release. If stung, wash
off the remaining tentacles. Vinegar can also be used. It is important to
not use fresh water (this causes the poison sacs to explode). Some jellyfish
venoms require anti-venom treatment. At present, the best way to deal with
jellyfish is to avoid them.
Sharks are over-exaggerated as a threat, yet they still remain a risk. Be
knowledgeable of where they are and prevent swimming or diving. Certain behaviors
such as splashing, being outlined (from below) next to a boat, and open cuts,
can attract sharks and make them confuse you with prey. Menstruating women
do not attract sharks.
If you see a shark, quietly and slowly leave the water and avoid splashing.
If a confrontation is unavoidable, place yourself behind and object (i.e.
air cylinder). Blowing air bubbles may be enough to repel a shark. If possible,
a punch to the snout will also work but be careful as touching a shark's skin
may cause abrasive wounds. Also if you are fishing, be careful as blood speared
fish can over-stimulate sharks with a "feeding frenzy"
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