latum are broad fish tapeworms reported from humans.
is the name of the disease caused by broad fish tapeworm infections
and is characterized by abdominal distention, flatulence, intermittent
abdominal cramping, and diarrhea onset about 10 days after consumption
of raw or insufficiently cooked fish.
larva that infects people is frequently encountered in the viscera
of freshwater and marine fishes. D. latum is sometimes
encountered in the flesh of freshwater fish or fish that are anatropous
(migrating from salt water to fresh water for breeding). Bears and
humans are the final or definitive hosts for this parasite.
latum is a broad, long tapeworm,
often growing to lengths between 1 and 2 meters (3-7 feet) and capable
of attaining 10 meters (32 feet).
pacificum normally matures
in seals or other marine mammals and reaches only about half the
length of D. latum .
is the drug, niclosamide, which is available to physicians through
the Centres for Disease Control's Parasitic Disease Drug Service.
eggs in feces on microscopic examination diagnose the disease.
in Gefilite Fish
is rare in the United States, but it was formerly common and known
as "Jewish or Scandinavian housewife's disease" because
the preparers of Gefilite fish or fish balls tended to taste these
dishes before they were fully cooked.
persons are more genetically susceptible, usually persons of Scandinavian
descent and develop a severe name. This anemia results from the tapeworm's
stealing all the dietary Vitamin B12.
are not routinely analysed for larvae of D. latum , but
microscopic inspection of thin slices of fish, or digestion, can
be used to detect this parasite in fish flesh.
salmincola or N. schikhobalowi
are the North American and Russian troglotrematoid trematodes
(or flukes). These are parasitic flatworms. Nanophyetiasis is the
name of the human disease caused by these flukes.
include increase of bowel movements or diarrhea weight loss and
fatigue, abdominal discomfort and nausea
is done by detection eggs in stool.
under processed, and smoked salmon and steelhead are associated
Eustrongylides sp. are bright red roundworms (nemotodes),
and occur in freshwater fish, brackish water fish and in marine
larvae are consumed in undercooked or raw fish, they attach to the
digestive tract. Penetration into the gut wall is accompanied by
severe pain as the nematodes perforate the gut wall. Removal of
the nematodes by surgical resection or fiber optic devices with
forceps is possible is needed
consuming whole minnows are at greatest risk. These large worms
may be seen without magnification in the flesh of fish and are normally
very active after death of the fish.
lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura
eggs of these roundworms are "sticky" and may be transmitted
to the mouth by hands, other body parts, fomites (inanimate objects),
and trichuriasis are the names of these infections. Ascariasis is
also known commonly as the "large roundworm" infection
and trichuriasis as "whip worm" infection.
with one or a few Ascaris sp. may be asymptomatic unless
noticed when passed in the feces, or, on occasion, crawling up into
the throat and trying to exit through the mouth or nose. Infection
from numerous worms may result in a pneumonitis during the migratory
phase when larvae that have hatched from the small intestine penetrate
into tissues and travel by way of lymph and blood to the lungs.
In the lungs, the larvae break out and ascend into the throat and
descend back down the small intestine where they grow.
(ecdysis) occurs at various points along this path and, typically
for roundworms, the male and female adults in the intestine are
5th-stage nematodes. Vague digestive tract discomfort accompanies
the intestinal infection. Some worms wander and may locate in diverse
sites throughout the body causing complications.
with anthelmintics is likely to cause the intestinal adult worms
sp. larvae do not migrate
after hatching but grow and mature in the intestine. Symptoms range
from inapparent through vague digestive tract distress to emaciation
with dry skin and diarrhea (usually mucoid). Toxic or allergic symptoms
may also occur.
infections are diagnosed by finding the typical eggs in the patient's
feces; on occasion the larval or adult worms are found in the feces
or, especially for Ascaris sp., in the throat, mouth,
are found in poorly treated sewage-fertilizer. Humans are infected
when produce is consumed raw. Infected food handlers may contaminate
a wide variety of foods.
infections may self-cure after the larvae have matured into adults
or may require antihelmintic treatment. In severe cases, surgical
removal may be necessary. Allergic symptoms (especially but not
exclusively of the asthmatic sort) are common in long-lasting infections
or upon reinfection in Ascariasis.