Diphtheria should be up to date and given every 10 yrs.
Polio is also recommended
Hepatitis A vaccine
is hig h ly
recommended for all travellers. Hepatitis
E is endemic, with seropositivity rates of 22% in adults. There
is no vaccine for hepatitis E. The hepatitis B carrier rate in the
adult general population is about 9%. The usual traveller without
lifestyle problem is at virtually no risk of acquiring hepatitis
B virus (HBV), but vaccination for Hepatitis B is recommended for
high-risk tourists, long-term visitors, and anybody wanting increased
protection. Some people prefer
the pre mixed vaccine of Twinrix but if they use this vaccine they
must receive 2 full doses to be adequately protected against either
Hep A or B for one year. A third shot taken 6 months later completes
the series. Hepatitis C is endemic
and is largely transmitted by blood products and body fluids. Like
HBV, Hepatitis C carries no increased risk for travellers who have
a normal lifestyle.
is re ported
countrywide, with the highest incidence in the northern and southern
regions, and the incidence greater in the summer and during the
rainy seasons (between March and October). Typhoid vaccine is re
for those travelling off the usual tourist routes, those visiting
friends or relatives, and for long-stay visitors. Typhoid vaccines
are only 60-70% effective; safe food and drink precautions should
continue to be observed
cause greater than 50% of cases of traveller's diarrhea in Thailand,
and greater than 90% of Campylobacte r species are now
reported to be resistant to quinolone antibiotics. Quinolones, however,
are still recommended as the first choice for the treatment of acute
diarrhea, because a good clinical response may still be obtained.
Azithromycin (Zithromax) is a good alternative antibiotic. Persistent
diarrhea may be due to a parasitic disease such as giardiasis or
amebiasis, bur these infections rarely affect tourists. The
vaccine Dukoral protects for about 20% of travelers' diarrhea and
is effective for 3 months.
This disease rarely
occurs in people visiting the tourist sites in Thailand. In the
past 2 decades, malaria-endemic regions have been shrinking, now
involving mostly land near the borders with Myanmar and Cambodia.
There is no risk of malaria in Bangkok and other major urban area.
However the travellers should be aware of the possibility of infection.
Protection against insect bites, especially between dusk and dawn,
is a high priority.
Encephalitis JE is highly endemic nationwide, especially
in the central and northern provinces; sporadic cases occur in the
south. There is risk of infection in the suburban areas of major
cities, except Bangkok, where JE is uncommon. Highest risk in the
south occurs during the rainy and early dry seasons; in the north,
during late summer and autumn. Vaccination is recommended for travellers
who will be staying in rural-agricultural area longer than 2 weeks
during the peak transmission season. All travellers to rural areas
should take measures to prevent mosquito bites.
endemic, and a risk for travellers. Peak infection rates occur in
the rainy season, between June and August, countrywide, but particularly
in northeastern Thailand. Prevention is by avoiding daytime mosquito
Influenza After a period of quiescence in Southeast Asia,
out breaks of highly pathogenic avian flu (A/H5N1) are again being
reported in chickens and ducks in China, Indonesia, Thailand and
Vietnam. In Thailand, outbreaks have been reported in 21 of 76 provinces.
Human cases, some fatal, have occurred after contact with infected
There is a high incidence of dog rabies in Thailand, and
about 60 cases of human rabies were reported in 2000. Rabid, stray
dogs are common in Bangkok, as well as in other urban and rural
areas. Although rabies is rare among tourists there is risk. No
one should pet or pick up any stray animals. Rabies vaccine is available
but is very expensive.
Embassy 15 th Floor,
Abdulrahim Place, 990 Rama IV, Bangkok, Bangkok 10500, Thailand;
Tel: 66-2-636-0540; Fax: 66-2-636-0555: Website; www.dfaitmaeci.gc.ca/Bangkok
*International Travel Medicine Clinic,
BNH Hospital, Bangkok; this clinic provides all routine and tropical
vaccinations and can provide referral advice and counselling regarding
health-related matters.*International SOS: International SOS Services
(Thailand) Ltd., 11 th floor-Diethelm Towers, 93/1 Wireless Road,
Lumpini, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand; Alarm Centre Tel: 66-2-205-7777;
Alarm Centre Fax: 66-2-256-7151/0