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Streptococcus spp.

 

Characteristics into Groups A, B, C, D, F, and G. Groups A define Streptococcocal bacteria and D can be transmitted to humans via food.

 

Group A: one species with 40 antigenic types ( S. pyogenes ).

Group A can cause septic sore throat (strep throat) and scarlet fever as well as other pyogenic and septicemic infections. Sore and red throat, pain on swallowing, tonsillitis, high fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, malaise, rhinorrhea; occasionally a rash occurs, onset 1-3 days .Group A is diagnosed by culturing of nasal and throat swabs, pus, sputum, blood, suspect food, environmental samples.

Food sources include milk, ice cream, eggs, steamed lobster, ground ham, potato salad, egg salad, custard, rice pudding, and shrimp salad .

In infections food was allowed to stand at room temperature for several hours between preparation and consumption. Food contamination is the result of poor hygiene, ill food handlers, or the use of unpasteurized milk.

Outbreaks of strep throat and scarlet fever were common before milk pasteurisation. Salad bars have also been sources of infection. Most current outbreaks involve complex foods (i.e., salads) that are infected by a food handler with strep throat, which may subsequently infect hundreds of individuals.

 

Group D: five species ( S. faecalis , S. faecium , S. durans , S. avium , and S. bovis ). May produce a clinical syndrome similar to staphylococcal intoxication Following ingestion of infected food cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills, and dizziness in 2-36 hours. Group D is diagnosed by culturing of stool samples, blood, and suspect food

Infected foods include sausage, evaporated milk, cheese, meat croquettes, meat pie, pudding, raw milk, and pasteurised milk.

Food contamination is due to under processing and/or poor and unsanitary food preparation. Outbreaks are usually the result of preparing, storing, or handling food in an unsanitary manner.