Infections may occur in animals, especially in poultry and swine. The bacteria may exist on water, soil, insects, factory surfaces, kitchen surfaces, animal feces, raw meats, raw poultry, and raw seafoods. Some salmonella species have been isolated from the outside of eggshells.

Foods involved include raw meats, poultry, eggs, milk and dairy products, fish, shrimp, frog legs, yeast, coconut, sauces and salad dressing, cake mixes, cream-filled desserts and toppings, dried gelatin, peanut butter, cocoa, and chocolate.

S. typhi and the paratyphoid bacteria cause sepsis and produce typhoid or typhoid-like fever in humans. Other types of salmonellosis produce milder symptoms.

The salmonella bacteria penetrate the gut into the epithelium of small intestine and inflammation occurs with a toxin produced.

Onset time is 6-48 hours with an infective dose as little as 15-20 cells. Acute symptoms may last for 1 to 2 days but may be prolonged depending on host factors, ingested dose, and strain characteristics

Acute symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever, and headache. Arthritic symptoms may follow 3-4 weeks after onset of acute symptoms. Reiter's syndrome has also been reported to occur generally after 3 weeks. Reactive arthritis may occur with a frequency of about 2% of culture-proven cases. Septic arthritis also occurs. Salmonella sepsis has been associated with infection of every organ system.

Symptoms are more severe in the elderly, infants, and sick. AIDS patients suffer s frequently (estimated 20-fold more than general population) with recurrent episodes.

Food analysis:

Diagnosis is done by serological identification of culture isolated from the stool.

S. typhi and S. paratyphi A, B, and C produce typhoid and typhoid-like fever in humans.

The fatality rate of typhoid fever is 10% compared to less than 1% for most forms of salmonellosis

Reference :

Salmonellosis associated with a Thanksgiving Dinner MMWR 45(46):1996 Nov 22 .

MMWR 45(34):1996 Aug 30 Outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis infection with the consumption of raw shell eggs.

Salmonella infection associated with raw ground beef MMWR 44(49):1995 Dec 15 .

MMWR 44(42):1995 Oct 27 Salmonellosis associated with beef jerky .

Salmonella from commercially prepared ice cream MMWR 43(40):1994 Oct 14 .

S. enteritidis in homemade ice cream is reported in this MMWR 43(36):1994 Sep 16 .


Salmonella in Powdered Milk Products and Infant Formula MMWR 42(26):1993 Jul 09 .

Salmonella outbreaks in Grade A eggs MMWR 37(32):1988 Aug 19 and MMWR 39(50):1990 Dec 21 .