may occur in animals, especially in poultry and swine. The bacteria
may exist on water, soil, insects, factory surfaces, kitchen surfaces,
animal feces, raw meats, raw poultry, and raw seafoods. Some salmonella
species have been isolated from the outside of eggshells.
involved include raw meats, poultry, eggs, milk and dairy products,
fish, shrimp, frog legs, yeast, coconut, sauces and salad dressing,
cake mixes, cream-filled desserts and toppings, dried gelatin, peanut
butter, cocoa, and chocolate.
typhi and the paratyphoid
bacteria cause sepsis and produce typhoid or typhoid-like fever
in humans. Other types of salmonellosis produce milder symptoms.
salmonella bacteria penetrate the gut into the epithelium of small
intestine and inflammation occurs with a toxin produced.
time is 6-48 hours with an infective dose as little as 15-20 cells.
Acute symptoms may last for 1 to 2 days but may be prolonged depending
on host factors, ingested dose, and strain characteristics
symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever,
and headache. Arthritic symptoms may follow 3-4 weeks after onset
of acute symptoms. Reiter's syndrome
has also been reported to occur generally after 3 weeks. Reactive
arthritis may occur with a frequency of about 2% of culture-proven
cases. Septic arthritis also occurs. Salmonella sepsis has been
associated with infection of every organ system.
are more severe in the elderly, infants, and sick. AIDS patients
suffer s frequently (estimated 20-fold more than general population)
with recurrent episodes.
is done by serological identification of culture isolated from the
typhi and S. paratyphi
A, B, and C produce typhoid and typhoid-like fever in humans.
fatality rate of typhoid fever is 10% compared to less than 1% for
most forms of salmonellosis
associated with a Thanksgiving Dinner MMWR
45(46):1996 Nov 22 .
45(34):1996 Aug 30 Outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis
infection with the consumption of raw shell eggs.
infection associated with
raw ground beef MMWR
44(49):1995 Dec 15 .
44(42):1995 Oct 27 Salmonellosis associated with beef jerky
from commercially prepared ice cream MMWR
43(40):1994 Oct 14 .
enteritidis in homemade
ice cream is reported in this MMWR
43(36):1994 Sep 16 .
in Powdered Milk Products and Infant Formula MMWR
42(26):1993 Jul 09 .
outbreaks in Grade A eggs MMWR
37(32):1988 Aug 19 and MMWR
39(50):1990 Dec 21 .