new pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has recently became available.
vaccine targets the 7 most common disease-causing types of
Disease is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis (swelling
of the brain and spinal cord) of children 5 and younger.
can also cause severe blood infections (bacteremia) and lung
This is spread to people by droplets of bacteria that are
bacteremia and meningitis fatality per case is 10-20% in infants
and up to 80% in elderly people. Pneumococcal infections can
be treated with antibiotics but vaccination is becoming an
important method of prevention since bacteria resistance to
antibiotics is becoming a problem.
There are two types of pneumocoocal vaccines:
1. The Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is recommended
for children over 2 years with high risk of disease (lack
of spleen, sickle cell disease, nephritic syndrome, CSF leak,
and immunosuppression including HIV infection). This vaccine
is also recommended for adults 65 years and older, those with
chronic diseases, immunocompromization, HIV infection, and
those in high-risk occupations. One vaccination is enough
but people at very high risk may have a single booster after
5 years. This vaccine is not effective in children under 2
2. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended
for children <24 months and is given at 2,4,6 and 12-15 months.
Unvaccinated children >7 most need fewer boosters. It is recommended
to consider vaccinating all children aged 24-59 months as
Adverse effects include local reactions (polysaccharide 30-50%,
Conjugate 10-20% and fever or muscle aches (polysaccharide
<1%, conjugate 5-24%) but there are no severe reactions. For
children, the vaccination with the conjugate vaccine (Prevnar)
For Healthy children :
Three doses are given in the first year of life followed by
one booster in the second year.
Dose 1 at 2 months
Dose 2 at 4 months
Dose 3 at 6 months
Dose 4 at 12-15 months.
(The recommended interval between doses is 4-8weeks)
for Healthy Children after 7 months until 9 years of
at first dose
number of doses
doses 4wks apart
-3rd dose after 12mos old
-3rd dose 2mos after 2nd
doses 2mos apart