most commonly occurs in Africa, Central Asia, South America,
and the former U.S.S.R states.
is transmitted to people by bacterial spores from infected
sheep, goats, cattle, horses, or pigs, usually after close
customs restricts the importation of certain produces (products
made from goat) because of their risk.
The 3 types of disease are:
1. Cutaneous anthrax (after handling animals or their
hides) affects skin.
symptoms begin 1-5 days after exposure with ulcerations of
the skin at points of contact.
ulcers are dark red, itchy but rarely painful, and the adjacent
lymph nodes may be inflamed. Other symptoms are fever, headache,
nausea and anorexia. If untreated, uncontrolled infection
may make the individual severely ill.
disease was common in woolgatherers.
2. Pulmonary anthrax occurs after inhaling spores and
manifests as a dry cough, high fever, and chest pain.
3. Intestinal anthrax occurs after eating infected meat
causing diarrhea, vomiting and fever.
2 and 3 are more severe but more rare than Cutaneous anthrax.
Diagnosis is made by culture. A mild skin infection will respond
to antibiotics, but severe types require hospitalization.
anthrax vaccine is an exotic vaccine, mostly used by the military.
gives protection but this needs to be boosted. It is unavailable
For more anthrax information check the following links:
England Journal of Medicine http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/341/11/815