the Rhodesian type in East Africa caused
by two species of Trypanosama brucei, which are transmitted
by tse-tse flies. Rhodesian form is quicker in onset
than the Gambian type.
Tse-tse flies are found in the savannah and fresh water.
a fly bite, a painful inflamed boil will develop. Symptoms
begin after 3 weeks of being bitten and include: fever, rapid
pulse, headache, weakness, joint pain, and itching. The liver,
spleen, and lymph nodes become enlarged. With progression
the brain is affected causing behavioral changes, lethargy,
and apathy and eventually coma hence the "sleeping sickness".
Blood tests will test for the parasite or anti bodies against
lumbar puncture may be necessary; IV drugs can treat the disease.
West African type is mostly a human disease-affecting
people living close to woodlands along riverbanks where tse-tse
flies prefer. Countries such as Uganda, Zaire, and Sudan are
reason for an increase is that much of the population had
to ride near thickets and bush during the recent wars exposing
themselves to the tse-tse flies, where as they would have
been otherwise safer in their villages. A traveler passing
through these countries would be at minimal risk
The East African type affects wild animal
on open Savannah grasslands. People at risk include fisherman,
hunters, and sometimes safari tourists.
include fever and may be hard to distinguish from other infections.
a painless chancre or boil occurs at the bite of the tse tse
fly followed by fever and a rash.
stages include neurological symptoms.
includes insect avoidance, spraying, destroying infected germ
life as well as personal protection and DEET.
The tse-tse flies are attracted to bright colors especially
should wear subdued clothing that blends preferably.
Links for more up to date information on African Trypanosomiasis
World Health Organization, WHO
Center for Disease Control CDC
Health Promotion and Education Trypanosomiasis